The underlying risk factors for ever married women in India: evidence of non-consensual forced sex from a large scale survey

Mukesh Ravi Raushan, Rajesh Raushan


This paper investigates sexual violence among ever married women between the ages of 15-49 in India. The risk of forced sex by ever (?) intimate partner was investigated using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), conducted in 2005-06. A binary multivariate logistic regression for three different selected models based on maximum log likelihood, Akaike’s Information Criterion and model’s sensitivity was applied. The paper aims to (1) estimate the prevalence of non-consensual forced sex among married women (2) to assess the association of a partner’s human capital with forced sex in India; and (3) to investigate the economic wellbeing of a household with forced sex by ever intimate partner. Lower levels of education and preference for son ideology were found to be risk factorsfor forced sex, whereas household economic deprivation and partner’s human capital index were negatively associated with sexual violence. Ethnicity and religion were found to be more influential when controlling for other factors in the study, whereas, conditional age at marriage was negatively associated with sexual violence in India. West Bengal (21%) and Rajasthan (20%) were the states with the highest estimates of sexual violence in the country.

Mukesh RAVI RAUSHAN, Doctoral Fellow, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai, Pin: 400088, India. E-mail:

Rajesh RAUSHAN, Doctoral Fellow, Population Research Centre, Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bangalore, Pin: 560072, India. E-mail:


Sexual violence, Forced Sex, logistic regression, education, domestic violence

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ISSN: 2035-5556

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